History of the IICAS office

"Russian Samarkand is such a beauty..."

R.G. Nazaryan

The name of this man, unfortunately, tells almost nothing to the modern inhabitants of Samarkand. Meanwhile, his contribution to the emergence and development of this city is quite significant and weighty. Who was Mikhail Ivanovich Nevesky? Mikhail Nevesky was born in 1856 in Little Russia to a poor, unranked clerical family. The nobility of this family was dubious, which is why the Heraldry - the department of the Senate of the Russian Empire in charge of the affairs of the nobility - never included the Nevessky family in its ranks. The mentioned family, without having any real estate and their own estate, modestly existed only on the small salary of their father, a village official. In 1868 a secondary school for agriculture and gardening was transferred from Odessa to Uman, a small town in Kiev province. Young people, who graduated from district, town or two-class rural schools, were admitted here without entrance exams. The school was a place where young men, who had graduated from district, town or two-class rural schools, were admitted without any entrance examinations. Nevesky was admitted to the Uman College in 1869 and studied there for six years. After successfully completing his studies in 1875, he was awarded a diploma as a superintendent-gardener. He also received the title of honorary private citizen. At the end of the same year by order of the Department of Agriculture and Rural Industry, he was sent to St. Petersburg and appointed gardener in the Imperial Botanical Gardens. After serving in the capital for a few months, the twenty-year-old provincial suddenly applied to Governor-General of Turkestan K. P. von Kaufman on April 9, 1876. After informing the head of the region that he had a secondary vocational education and worked as a gardener in the Imperial Botanical Gardens, Nevesky further outlined his request: "As a native of southern province the harsh climate of St. Petersburg acts very badly on me, and at all my desire I feel unable to continue here my studies on my profession, and, therefore, I humbly ask Your Excellency to pay kind attention and not to refuse to accept me for service in Turkistan region in view of my ardent desire to continue service on military administration, putting myself at Your Excellency's full disposal"1 . Apparently, such a strange decision of the young man was a response to the urgent problem of providing the newly formed Turkestan region with qualified personnel in those years. At the end of February 1876 the Russian Minister of Public Education received a letter from Turkestan Governor-General with a request to send young orientalists and other graduated specialists to him 2 . The Minister agreed, having also gained the support of the Minister of War Adjutant General D.A. Milyutin and the Chief of the General Staff Adjutant General F.L. Geyden. On the 29th of April of the same year Adjutant General von Kaufmann addressed to the St Petersburg District Intendant's office with a demand "to appoint an ungraded gardener of the Imperial Botanical Garden Michael Ivanov Nevesky to the military and national administration of the Governor-General's office entrusted to me at my disposal. I have the honour to ask the St. Petersburg district intendant's office to give Michael Nevesky double runs for one horse according to the number of versts from St. Petersburg to Tashkent and a hundred roubles as a lift" 3 . On 19 May 1876, signed by the Chief of the General Staff, a message is received from St. Petersburg to the Chancellery of the Turkestan Governor-General that, by order of K.P. von Kaufmann, all of Nevesky's documents have been drawn up and sent to Tashkent for his appointment to the service. Michael himself arrived in Tashkent and on May 31st was appointed to the post of an official for writing classes at the chancery of the Turkestan governor-general. After serving in this position for two years and having performed well, he was encouraged: from the General Staff of the Military Ministry of Russia came the instruction "...the unranked Mikhail Nevesky, who is at the disposal of the Turkestan Governor-General, should be assigned to the third class of clerical officials" 4 . He served in Tashkent for four years, and then, on 23 July 1880, the clerk was transferred to Samarkand at the disposal of Lieutenant-General A.K. Abramov, chief of the Zeravshan district. Here Nevesky was assigned to him as a junior special officer. In September of the following year he, on seniority, He was made a collegiate registrar. By this time Mikhail had already started a family, marrying the daughter of Blagoveshchensky, a court counselor, Elisaveta Vasilievna. On 1 January 1887, by imperial decree of the Russian Emperor, the Zeravshan Division was transformed into the Samarkand Province. In addition to the territories of Samarkand and Katta-Kurgan districts, it included the lands of Jizzakh and Khujand. After the formation of the province, a host of economic problems had to be solved in its capital, including the need to establish a public garden in Samarkand. The military governor of the region commissioned M.I. Nevesky, a junior official with special assignments, to draw up the estimate and plan as soon as possible. Having successfully coped with the assigned task, Mikhail Ivanovich submitted to the governor in March 1887 all the "necessary documents for the lay-out and arrangement of a city garden of 12000 square sazhens" 5 . After part of the lands of Bukhara Khanate was annexed to Russia, the Zeravshan district with its centre in Samarkand was formed and included in the Governorate-General of Turkestan, the new authorities intended to start building a European city. Already in 1870 the supreme governor of Turkestan, General K.P. von Kaufman approved the plan of the future city which was presented to him. The place for its construction was situated to the west of the citadel, where there were only private vegetable gardens and arable lands. New administration bought about 350 square sazhens of land from the local landowners as early as in 1872. As early as 1872, the first town streets were marked out and bridges were built. Then they started paving them and planting trees on both sides of the streets. The construction of the new city - "Russian" Samarkand - was, naturally, dictated by military-strategic tasks. Therefore, it was located under the cover of the fortress, around which a broad esplanade was cleared. The original plan was to radiate the streets of the future city. The northern extremity of the European part of Samarkand became Barbetnaya Street (nowadays Huseina Baykaro Street). The Katta-Kurgan, Tashkent and Urgut streets ran parallel to it. From the south-west the European city being built was flanked by Abramovsky Boulevard (named after General Alexander Konstantinovich Abramov, the first chief of the Zeravshan district, the founding father of Russian Samarqand) which separated it from the old, Muslim part. In the hot climate of the boulevard, the importance of planting trees and shrubs was given, so a nursery was established on the boulevard, which was still empty. The nursery received seedlings of various plants from different countries of Europe and Asia, which were planted and adapted to the local climate. After two or three years, the grafted cuttings were planted in the streets of the town and sold at the lowest price (and often given away for free) to locals from the old part of town. At the end of the western part of the boulevard, in order to be close to the nursery he headed, he bought a plot of land and built a house of his own design and settled in it Mikhail Ivanovich Nevesky, a humble official at the military governor's office, whose name is linked to an important page in the history of Samarqand. It was he, a professional horticulturist, who was entrusted by the authorities with landscaping the new town. The once-empty space - from his dwelling to the The building of a female gymnasium was transformed by Mikhail Ivanovich into an experimental nursery. Here, under his guidance, seedlings brought from other regions were planted, acclimatised, and then, having adapted to the local climate, "moved" to the streets of the city. Much of Samarkand's current green space owes its appearance on our soil to this man, whose original house still adorns one corner of the boulevard. The creation of the nursery was supervised by specialists, connoisseurs and lovers of gardening, N. I. Korolkov and M. I. Nevesky. Thanks to their activities, a whole green massif, the Ivanovsky Park, soon appeared in Samarkand. The first seedlings were planted in Abramovsky Boulevard in 1881. Then, the city garden, the area around the military hospital, and the city hospital were planted. After that, it was the turn of the station square and the streets of the new town. It should be noted that the flora was studied at that time by the leading scientific institutions of Russia, among which the Imperial Academy of Sciences (St. Petersburg), the Imperial Botanical Gardens (St. Petersburg and Crimea), the Russian Geographical Society and the Russian Society of Horticulture should be mentioned. It is not uninteresting that the main interest of these institutions in the 1870s-80s focused on Central Asia, where historically it happened that a significant role in the study of this region was played not at all by a professional, but an amateur botanist, a man of uncommon ability and courage, Lieutenant-General Nikolai Ivanovich Korolkov. Not only did he study endemics, but he also did much to promote horticulture in his subordinate area. He also established a nursery for the propagation of plants in the gardens of Russian settlers, and subsequently laid out a magnificent garden at his home. His example was followed by other Russian amateur gardeners, arranging their gardens in the "European taste". By the 1890s in Tashkent, Samarkand, Fergana and Verny (now Almaty) there were already many gardens and parks where, in accordance with the Russian custom, holidays and public festivities were held. Music was played in city squares, and all Russian parts of Asian cities of that time seemed to be "one continuous garden". The main problem in the cultivation of gardens in Central Asia was the creation of irrigation systems by means of numerous artificial ditches. However, with financial resources, which the Russian authorities had plenty of, these difficulties were successfully overcome. If the irrigation was possible, the owners grew not only local species of vegetables and fruits, but also created exquisite decorative landscapes, where plants from China, Japan, and even America and Australia could be found. The only problem that could never be solved was the shortage of gardeners and ornamental horticulturalists, as the local population, although loyal to the Russians, did not seek training at all. During General Korolkov's stay in Samarkand some local newspapers of the second half of the XIX century reported that mudflows in the mountains of Amankutan (30 kilometres from the regional centre) often reached catastrophic proportions. Mudflows washed away buildings, roads, fields and canals, and people and livestock were killed. Traffic from Samarkand to Shakhrisabz was interrupted for a long time because of the storms. In 1878 the Turkestan province department allocated 1,000 roubles to combat soil erosion and mudflows in the mountains. The work, started under the patronage of Korolkov in Amankutan, was the first experience in Central Asia. Amankutan was then unheard-of "lucky" - its revival and fate were taken up by real enthusiasts, experienced hardworking naturalists, breeders deeply in love with nature and sincerely wishing to help it. They compensated for the lack of funds from the treasury with their own investments. The work in Amankutan started in the steppe tract Bagryn on the left bank of the Dargom. On an area of more than 3 hectares of rainfed field, methods of cultivation and preparation of the soil for afforestation were developed. Observations were made on the desiccation of the arable layer, wind and water erosion, and weed vegetation germination. Gradually, a steppe variant of tree and shrub seedling cultivation was drawn up using local and imported tree species from Russia. For 4 years, imported trees were tested in the Bagryn forest nursery, which prepared seedlings both for Amankutan and for sale to local residents. Simultaneously with the work in the tree nursery, sappers of the Samarkand garrison and residents of nearby kishlaks terraced the dry slopes of Amankutansay. The terraces were created horizontally and parallel to each other by hand. In the spring of 1882, under the supervision and guidance of N.I. Korolkov, M.I. Nevesky and forester S.A. Navrotsky, the first saplings were planted in the ground on the mountain slopes of Amankutan. Before planting, the roots of the trees were dipped in a liquid mixture of manure and clay, thus creating a nourishing environment at first. In order to ensure that the planted trees helped each other in growth and development, the way was invented to alternate species in one row: acacia - walnut - acacia, as well as in alternating rows: acacia - walnut on one, gleditsia - ailanthus on the other. Shrubs such as rose hips, honeysuckle, cherry plum and hawthorn were planted along the terrace. The foresters worked hard to take care of the plantings: weeding, loosening the soil, planting new saplings in place of the withered ones and other activities. However, the Samarkand enthusiasts lacked practical experience, therefore by the order of May 25, 1892, M.I.Nevesky was sent to Southern Russia and France "to study the methods of afforestation of mountains and foothills and for inspection of forest plantations"... The official's career continues - on 14 October 1894 he is promoted to provincial secretary. The following summer Nevesky is sent to Tashkent to participate in a gardening exhibition. When N.I. Korolkov left Samarkand in 1884, M.I. Nevesky and his colleague S.K. Navrotsky took charge of afforestation of Amankutan. They significantly expanded the range of wood and shrub species. Groves of karagach (Karagachsai and Gazarmasai), pine, talus (Yulsai, Kumbel), almond, poplar appeared... In addition to his practical work, Nevesky also had to carry out scientific research. In 1887, on the initiative of General K.P. von Kaufman, the first scientific expedition of the Turkestan section of the Imperial Society of Lovers of Natural History, Anthropology and Ethnography was sent to study Karategin and the Pamirs. The expedition was headed by the secretary of the said society V.F.Oshanin, with the topographer Rodionov and collector Nevesky as members of the expedition. On June 25, accompanied by guides and a detachment of Cossacks, the researchers set out from Samarqand. The study of the mountain ranges lasted for three and a half months. And practically every day of the journey enriched the expedition with discoveries. Rare and completely unknown species of insects were added to the entomological collection of V.F. Oshanin, the herbarium of botanist M.I. Nevesky was enlarged and also enriched with new species, as the journey progressed new lines were laid on map planks, which were taken by military topographer, staff-captain G.E. Rodionov. The expedition made a significant contribution to Turkestan studies, for which its members were awarded government prizes. On 30 August 1888 Michael Nevesky received his first award - the Order of St Ann of 3rd degree. But even being in Samarkand, busy with numerous affairs, Mikhail Ivanovich did not forget about his rural child: "On 5th of March, 1990 Nevesky applied to the regional board with the request to allot 50 dessiatinas of state land in Karatyubinskiy volost near kishlak Amankutan for artificial cultivation of forest. He repeated the same request on March 11 and April 10 of the same year. The Samarkand district governor notified the military governor that he had allocated 200 tanaps of land for the artificial forest". 6 . At the end of 1890 Nevesky was made a titular adviser and in the spring of the following year he was appointed a member of the commission on the design of institutions of the Ministry of State Property in the Turkestan region. On October 1, 1892 he was promoted to senior official on special assignments to the military governor of Samarkand. In March 1894 M.I.Nevesky was promoted to the rank of collegiate assessor and in autumn of the same year was awarded the Order of St.Stanislav, 2nd class. In September 1895 for years of his service in Turkestan region official Nevesky, by decision of the General Headquarters, received 300 rubles addition to his basic earnings - 1000 rubles of salary and 1000 rubles of canteen money. Having studied the plants and shrubs growing in Turkestan, M.I.Nevesky publishes in "Reference book of Samarkand region in 1894" their detailed list with comments. In September 1895 he was appointed as a temporary acting assistant to the Samarkand district governor. This position Nevesky holds till 17th of May 1896, after that he is awarded with the next Order of St.Anna 2nd degree. And all these years Mikhail Ivanovich continues the business of gardening of Samarkand entrusted to him... At the very end of the nineteenth century, a famous Russian writer and ethnographer, representative of a noble family, Evgeny Lvovich Markov, undertook a long journey to the eastern outskirts of the empire. The result of this trip was a voluminous book published at the very beginning of the 20th century. We believe that some excerpts from this edition will broaden our contemporaries' understanding of the history of Samarkand and the people who made it... "Russian Samarkand is a beauty you would not expect in this country. Wide, perfectly paved streets run in long sweeps to the right and to the left, crossing each other with geometric regularity. They are not even streets, but shady alleys, breathing cool, murmuring streams. Giant poplars, giants like we don't know in Russia, shady green shelves of the street pavements, which don't let in the side rays of morning sun, and at the roots of these green colossuses with cheerful babbling run inevitable aryks, without which no vegetation, no life is possible in Turkestan... The houses are small, low, all one-storey, but all of them are stone, clean and white; they are so young and cheerful against the green background of the gardens and trees that fill everything here. After the heat of the desert you enter a green paradise in such a shady green corner... Even after everything we have seen in Tashkent and Margilan, the wonderful green alleys of Samarkand make the most joyful impression. So much air, freshness, moisture, so much spring and life in these so-called "city streets", babbling brooks and much more reminding by their hordes of giant trees, by the endless prospects of their alleys some huge park for walking, than the prosaic location of the Russian military and civil administration. In addition to shady, long and wide streets, planted in four rows with trees and bordered on each side by rapidly flowing ditches, Samarkand has a real park, with paths, flower beds, flower beds, benches, there is also a nice city garden. The military governor's house has a very effective entrance, though it is one storey for the sake of coolness and security against earthquakes, and with its excellent orchard, park and various outbuildings it occupies an extensive quarter enclosed by a stone wall. Samarkand owes its plantations most of all to its first Governor-General Kaufman and to the famous Turkestan gardener, General Korolkov, who was here, if I am not mistaken, assistant to the military governor before he was appointed military governor of Fergana province. However, the first military governor of Samarkand, General Abramov, also worked hard on this good cause. The whole region benefited in particular from the state tree nurseries established under Kaufman in Samarkand and Margelan. Here, they were mainly supervised by Korolkov and Nevesky, connoisseurs and lovers of horticulture. These nurseries were prescribing and taming to the local climate all sorts of useful trees, selling them at the cheapest price and even sending them for free, to attract the natives, young seedlings and seeds. Therefore, in the streets and parks of Samarkand, in addition to the giant pyramidal poplar which was widespread in Turkestan for a long time, now there are many maples, ailanthus, gleditschia, catalpa (bignonia), white acacia, and soon. Through the efforts of our military acclimatisation gardeners many fruit trees have also been introduced into the Central Asian horticulture, producing more delicate and more expensive fruits...". 7 The selfless activity of the Samarkand gardener and landscaper did not go unnoticed: on November 1, 1897 Minister of Agriculture and State Property A.S.Yermolov sent a telegram to Turkestan Governor-General M.B.Vrevsky asking for his consent to appoint M.I.Nevesky an official in the forestry department of Turkestan. The governor gives his consent. In turn, military governor of Samarkand region informs the ministry of the service of M.I.Nevesky in this region, who "from July 23, 1880 held the post of special officer to the chief of Zeravshan district and from 1.01.1887 to the military governor of Samarkand region. During this period under his leadership 540 dessiatinas of forests were planted, mainly in the mountains of Samarkand province. All the time M.I.Nevesky was in charge of forestry and afforestation, as well as executed all the assignments related to agriculture". On 14 January of the following year Mikhail Ivanovich, who had moved to Tashkent, took up this important post. At the end of the same year he was promoted to court counselor and appointed to the post of head of the department of agriculture and state property of the Turkestan region, which was created in 1897. He was soon rewarded for his practical assistance to the neighbouring country Order of the Bukhara Star, 3rd class. By a decree of "20 August 1899 the Emperor gave him permission to accept and wear the Emir of Bukhara's award granted to him". In 1899 Nevesky, as Turkestan's chief forestry official began to familiarise himself with the sites under his responsibility. He has visited nurseries and forest plantations in various regions of the region, has read the reports of forest officers and has given some useful advice. However, according to him, there is confusion in the work of some employees of the forest department and there are financial irregularities in some of the documents. This led to a conflict between M.I. Nevesky and two foresters, Pischikov and Volkov, over the silvicultural works they carried out in the Ak-Tash tract and the Krasnovodopadsky nursery in the spring of 1899. The forest rangers, suspected of making false reports, did not want to admit their guilt and accused Nevesky of incompetence. The conflict soon escalated beyond a personal relationship. And then Mikhail Ivanovich, having carefully studied the state of affairs in the forestry of the Turkestan region, made a voluminous report on the existing irregularities and passed it to his superiors. A special commission headed by Colonel Chernevsky examined Nevesky's report. However, the commission did not fulfill its task, because the facts of gross violations in the forestry of the Turkestan region went beyond the limits of private squabbles and affected the interests of officials far from rank-and-file. And then it was decided to get rid of the obstinate and unyielding Michael Ivanovich: on February 10, 1900 the director of forest department received the secret message from the head of department of agriculture and state property M.I.Lazarevsky "about impossibility to keep Nevesky in a post of the official on a wood part". All that was needed now was the consent of the Governor-General of Turkestan, S.M. Dukhovsky. This was soon done. After a series of bureaucratic games, squabbles and proceedings in various instances, in April that year Mikhail Nevesky was dismissed from his post and appointed senior reserve forester of the Turkestan region. A month later he was appointed commissioner of the Samarkand Land and Tax Commission. However, the experienced and honest official continued to fight injustice. He sent his report to all the provincial authorities and to St Petersburg, proving his case. However, Mikhail Ivanovich failed to achieve the desired result. On September, 7 1900 Nevesky was granted a two-month holiday abroad in order to soften the situation and not to "wash dirty linen in public". It is unknown how this holiday was used, but shortly after its completion Michael Ivanovich was again transferred to a new place: on January, 9, 1901 military governor of Samarkand region reported that "Nevesky now is the commissar of the Katta-Kurgan land and tax commission". In the meantime, five years had elapsed since Mikhail Ivanovich had been promoted to the rank of collegiate counselor. According to the existing regulations, he was obliged to be promoted to the next rank. However, the local authorities were dragging out the process in every way possible. This is explained, in our view, by the fact that the status of State Councilor M. Nevesky gave him special privileges. State Councilor in Russia, a civil rank of the 5th class according to the Table of Ranks, corresponded to the position of deputy director of the department, vice-governor and chairman of the Treasury Chamber. The holders of this rank had high salaries. Accordingly high was the pension to which the retired official was soon preparing to go, and which could provide M. Nevesky quite a decent existence. The holder of this rank, one of the highest in the Russian Empire, had to be reckoned with. Having become a state councilor, M. Nevesky to some extent protected himself from the machinations of a hostile environment. He continued his service as the Commissioner of the Provisional Land and Tax Commission. But on January 25, 1905, having informed the chief of agriculture and state property department V.M.Lazarevsky about the situation round him and soberly assessing incorrect actions of the commission on "replacing the population with rain-fed and uncultivated lands" (which worked under the chairmanship of colonel Chernevsky from 1901 till 1905), he asked to dismiss him. Mikhail Ivanovich finished his letter to V.M. Lazarevsky with the following words: "... In view of all this, resigning - for under such conditions it is hard to serve - I will be happy if the information reported to you will serve for a new direction of this important business for the region". 8 . However, his dismissal was deemed premature by his superiors in St Petersburg, who thought that some time should be allowed to elapse. Nevertheless, the conflict continued to deepen and in the spring of 1907 the military governor of Samarkand province, Major-General S.D. Gesketh, decided to put an end to the protracted conflict. Having summarised the circumstances known to him, he sent a submission to St Petersburg for the dismissal of M.I. Nevesky from service. On receiving this document, V. M. Lazarevsky, the head of the Agriculture and State Property Directorate of the Russian Empire, deemed it necessary to convey the governor's opinion to Mikhail Ivanovich. In response, the head of the Forestry Department received a lengthy letter from Nevesky, in which the disgraced official, once again describing the violations taking place in the Turkestan province, gave details of his mythical "material well-being": "As to my material well-being, to which the Military governor refers when making the submission to dismiss me from service, it consists of a plot of land in Samarkand of 1,100 square sazhens, for which I paid 900 rubles, and a house on it with a wine cellar, costing 8,000 rubles. And also a plot of land on the Black Sea coast, given to me by the treasury, on which four years ago I planted a fruit garden of three tithes, which at present requires only maintenance expenses and where it is now impossible to live because of robberies and robberies If I really had the means, I would have retired a long time ago, but the prospect of getting a pension of 1,400 roubles a year instead of 3,600 roubles, while keeping one son in the Institute of Means of Communication costs me about 1,000 roubles a year, is keeping me from taking that step. Maybe I should resign myself to such conditions, serve as I am ordered and work for the local population only, without thinking about how many millions a Russian peasant pays to that population - but I can't do that in any case. Reporting all the above to Your Excellency, I respectfully request your order for a detailed investigation of this case. My report, which I submitted to the Commission on March 28th, 1904, and which has not yet been examined in substance by the Commission or by the Regional Government, I shall have the honour to submit to Your Excellency. Considering that it is impossible for me to remain in the service of Samarkand province in the attitude which has lately been established towards me by all my superiors, I respectfully request Your Excellency, if it would be acceptable to you not to recognize me as liable to resignation, to transfer me to the Fergana land and property Commission to replace Commissioner Dunin-Barkowski9 , who approached me with an offer to swap places with him. State Councillor M. Nevesky"10 . However, for obvious reasons, the proposed exchange did not take place. The first of these was the first time that he had been offered an exchange, but, for obvious reasons, the proposed exchange did not take place. Thus, in 1907, his thirty years of service in the Turkestan region came to an end. Having sold his comfortable house on Abramovsky Boulevard, State Councilor moved to Sochi and, having built a house in the above mentioned fruit garden, continued his life as a pensioner. The next few years Mikhail Ivanovich was a member of the Sochi Society of Agriculture, where he was listed as "landowner and member of the Exhibition Committee. The last mention of him found indicates that back in 1915 he was a member of the board of the Sochi Experimental Station, which became the successor of the former Society of Agriculture. Where and when his earthly existence ended is unknown: according to the Sochi City Archives, "in the collection of civil status records of churches of Sochi of the Black Sea district, in the church registers from 1901 to 1921 a record of death of Nevesky M.I. was not found" 11 .

1.Central State Archive of the Republic of Uzbekistan (TsGA RU, Tashkent). F. I-5, op.1, doc. 9250, fol. 7-7 vol.

2.Russian State Military Historical Archive (RGVIA, Moscow). F.400, op.1, file 439.





7. Markov E.L. Russia in Central Asia: Essays on travel in Transcaucasia, Turkmenistan, Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent and Fergana regions, the Caspian Sea and the Volga. St. Petersburg. 1901.

8. Central State Archive of Uzbekistan, F. I-1, op.2, file 830. 

9. Valerian Nikolaevich Dunin-Barkovsky - commissioner of the Fergana regional land and tax commission (since 20.03.1906). He was dismissed from service due to domestic circumstances and promoted to lieutenant colonel (06.09.1907).

10. CENTRAL STATE ARCHIVE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION. F.I-1, op. 2, doc. 830. Ply.83-83ob.

11. Reference from the Sochi City Archives dated 09.07. 2019. № 01.01-14/1103